School/College: College of Letters and Science
- M.A. in Geography
- M.S. in Geography
- Ph.D. in Geography
- Graduate Faculty
- Master of Arts/Master of Science in Geography
- Geography M.A./MLIS Coordinated Degree Program
- Doctor of Philosophy in Geography
- Certificate in Geographic Information Systems
The Department of Geography offers master's programs of study across a range of systematic, regional, and technical fields, and an innovative Ph.D. program focused on the urban environment. The department's strengths lie in three areas of expertise that are incorporated into the programs at both master's and Ph.D. levels. The areas are:
- Urban Development: This area primarily emphasizes the role of economic systems as well as cultural and social forces that shape the landscape and dynamics of urban areas. Courses examine such issues as urban growth and change, race and ethnicity in the city, cultural and physical aspects of urban planning process, and the geography of urban political decision-making.
- Physical Geography and Environmental Studies: This area addresses the interactions among natural forms and processes on the earth's surface and human connections with those natural phenomena. Course work in this general area discusses the distribution and analysis of earth surface landforms and processes (geomorphology), soils (pedology), plants and animals (biogeography) and long-term atmospheric patterns (climatology). Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the physical environment and people, incorporating studies of, for example, natural hazards, conservation, and environmental change, and paying particular attention to the manifestations of these relationships and processes in the urban environment.
- International Interests: Department faculty members have varied international interests and experience, for example, in Africa, Canada, the Caribbean, China, Latin America, South Asia, and Western Europe.
In addition to these departmental strengths, individual faculty members apply their expertise in topics such as remote sensing, GIS, and cartography to problems of the city. Geography faculty also participate in the certificate program in Geographic Information Systems, which is jointly offered by the College of Letters and Science and the School of Architecture and Urban Planning.
While the master's program offers a more traditional structure within which students can strengthen their knowledge of the discipline and one or more of its subfields, the department's unique Ph.D. program is designed to be especially attractive to forward-looking students interested in the urban environment who seek a flexible, versatile, 21st century graduate education with a strong emphasis on interdisciplinarity. The Ph.D. program's urban-environmental theme is inclusive and encompassing of processes and problems associated with the intersection of human and natural environments, strongly focused on "the city" as the entity of engagement. The program breaks with longstanding tradition in the field of geography in stressing a balance between specialized analytical research and synthetic research, between traditional academic research and community engagement, and between research and teaching. It relies heavily on Geographic Information Science (GIS) as a research tool and as an organizing framework.
Facilities and Resources
The University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee is the repository of the venerable American Geographical Society Library, an internationally renowned research resource. The Department of Geography boasts a large instructional Map Collection, which functions as a federal government depository for maps; and a Soils and Physical Geography Laboratory, which supports research projects among several UWM departments.
Microcomputer facilities used by the Geography Department for instruction include two PC/Windows workstation labs. Software installed in these labs includes geographic information systems, remote sensing, mapping, illustration, photo editing, desktop publishing, statistical, database management, and word processing packages. Several university DEC Alphas, other microcomputer laboratories, and multimedia facilities also are available for graduate student research.
Other research resources at UWM available to the Geography Department staff and students include the Cartography and GIS Center, the Great Lakes WATER Institute, the Center for Urban Initiatives and Research, the Center for Latin America, the Center for International Education, the Center for Urban Transportation Studies, the Center for Women's Studies, the Institute for Survey and Policy Research, and University Information Technology Services (formerly Information and Media Technologies).
- Distinguished Professor
- Schwartz, Mark D., Ph.D., University of Kansas
- Day, Michael J., Ph.D., Oxford University, England
- Nelson, Frederick E., Ph.D., University of Michigan
- Wu, Changshan, Ph.D., Ohio State University, Chair
- Associate Professors
- Fredlund, Glen, Ph.D., University of Kansas
- Ghose, Rina, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
- Mansson McGinty, Anna, Ph.D., Lund University, Sweden
- McCarthy, Linda, Ph.D., University of Minnesota
- Assistant Professors
- Beyer, Kirsten, Ph.D., University of Iowa
- Bonds, Anne, Ph.D., University of Washington
- Choi, Woonsup, Ph.D., University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
- Donnelly, Alison, Ph.D., Trinity College, Ireland
- Holifield, Ryan, Ph.D., University of Minnesota
- Sziarto, Kristin, Ph.D., University of Minnesota
- Xu, Zengwang, Ph.D., Texas A&M University
- Yoon, Hyejin, Ph.D., Ohio State University
Master of Arts/Master of Science in Geography
The M.A. normally is awarded to those who concentrate in cultural or human geography, whereas the M.S. is awarded to those who concentrate in physical geography. Students must elect to pursue either the M.A. or M.S. option during their first semester in the program. A minimum of 6 credits in physical geography or natural science courses appropriate to the student's area of study are required for the M.S. Students may also elect to complete their degree through either a thesis or non-thesis track.
An applicant must meet Graduate School requirements plus these departmental requirements to be considered for admission to the program:
- Evidence of general intellectual ability and compelling interest in geography. An undergraduate major in geography is desirable as evidence of such ability and interest but is not required. Past coursework will be compared to the core requirements of the UWM Geography bachelor's degree in order to determine any deficiencies that need to be satisfied as a condition of acceptance.
- Submission to the Geography department of three letters of recommendation supporting application.
- Submission of recent GRE scores.
- Departmental approval, based on thorough evaluation of applicant's potential for professional development.
Major Professor as Advisor
The student must have a major professor to advise and supervise the student's studies as specified in Graduate School regulations. The Chair of the Graduate Student Administrative Committee is a temporary advisor; within the first semester the student selects an advisor in the student's specialization.
Credits and Courses
Minimum degree requirement is 30 graduate credits with an average GPA of 3.0. The student, in consultation with the advisor, plans a program of studies to include 4 credits in Geography 525 (Geographic Information Science); 4 credits in Geography 547 (Spatial Analysis); 3 credits in Geography 810 (Introduction to Techniques of Research and Presentation); 3 credits in Geography 870 (Contemporary Geographic Approaches); and 12 credits in graduate-level (700 and above) courses approved by the student's advisor (at least 3 of these credits must be in one Geography graduate seminar course). The remaining 4 credits will be earned in the student's capstone project (see Thesis Track and Non-Thesis Track information below). The student also must attend Geography colloquia regularly while in residence and must present her/his thesis research at a departmental colloquium.
The student must register at least 4 credits of Geog 890: Research and Master's Thesis (approved by the student's advisor). In addition, the student, through the advisor, must present a proposed thesis topic and Advisory Committee to the Graduate Faculty of the Department for its approval. For students electing the M.S. option, the Faculty will also judge the appropriateness of the thesis topic for that degree. The student must then write a thesis acceptable to the major professor for presentation to the Advisory Committee (two faculty in addition to the advisor). The defense date for the thesis must be set at least two weeks prior to the Graduate School deadline for completion of all work. The thesis must be approved by the advisor and delivered to the committee at least six weeks prior to the defense date. Students must submit the thesis to the advisor in sufficient time to meet the committee deadline. Exceptions to these deadlines under unusual circumstances must be approved unanimously by the student's committee.
In addition to submission of the final thesis to the Graduate School (according to their required procedure), the candidate must present the Geography Department with a professionally hard-bound copy which meets Graduate School specifications for quality. This copy will remain on file in the department.
This track is intended for students who are not interested in continuing their graduate education beyond the master's degree, and plan to seek professional employment. The M.A. degree will normally be awarded upon completion of this track. Those who wish a M.S. degree must formally petition the Graduate Faculty in writing, providing a rationale as to why that degree is appropriate to their program. The student must complete at least 4 credits of graduate work (approved by the student's advisor) as either:
- Two research papers (Geog 999)
Students pursuing the non-thesis track through the two research paper option must choose two separate topics, and conduct extended literature reviews on the topics, although other possibilities, such as a small research project, should not be excluded. The papers are expected to be 25-50 pages apiece. The student is expected to have an oral defense with three committee members regarding the two papers. According to current guidelines, the student is not expected to present his/her papers to the colloquium series
- A graduate internship (Geog 698 or Geog 889–note that Geog 810 is a prerequisite for Geog 889)
Students pursuing the non-thesis track through the graduate internship should conduct at least 180 hours of internship. The internship should be related to the student's academic area of interest and must be approved by the advisor. The student is expected to write a scholarly paper of 25-50 pages length that connects the internship to the appropriate literature. The student must have a committee of three faculty members, and is expected to go through an oral defense with the committee members regarding the internship paper. According to current guidelines, the student is not expected to present his/her internship paper to the colloquium series.
In combination with the thesis defense (or after completion of the work for the non-thesis track), the student must pass a final oral examination over the field of geography, administered by the student's Advisory Committee. Scheduling this examination during the summer is not permitted except under unusual academic circumstances and with the approval of the department faculty.
This program is designed to be completed in two years of full-time attendance. The Graduate School requires that all degree requirements be completed within five years of initial enrollment.
Geography M.A./MLIS Coordinated Degree Program
In cooperation with the School of Information Studies, the Department of Geography offers an M.A./MLIS coordinated program to prepare students for positions as map librarians. Students in the program will pursue concurrently a Master of Arts in Geography degree program and a Master of Library and Information Science degree program, with an emphasis on Map Librarianship. Prerequisite to the award of either degree in this program is the simultaneous award of its counterpart degree.
The M.A. in Geography normally has a minimum requirement of 24 credits in geography. For the coordinated M.A. Geography/MLIS degree program, however, students can substitute 6 credits in L&I Sci courses for 6 credits of geography. This program, therefore, requires a total of 48 credits. Students must complete the 30 credits required for the MLIS degree and the 18 credits in Geography courses specified below.
- Geog 525 Geographic Information Science, 4 cr
- Geog 547 Spatial Analysis, 3 cr
- Geog 810 Introduction to Techniques of Research and Presentation, 3 cr
- Geog 870 Contemporary Geographic Approaches: (Subtitle), 3 cr
- Geog 900-level course, 3 cr
- Geog Any graduate course, 2 cr
Students are encouraged to take L&I Sci 683 Cartographic Resources in Libraries (3 cr) as one of the two L&I Sci courses that substitute for 6 credits of geography.
The Geography Department offers opportunities for fieldwork that may count toward these requirements. In addition to off-campus fieldwork, the American Geographical Society Collection at the UWM Golda Meir Library provides many unique opportunities for map librarianship fieldwork and is an appropriate site for an internship.
Graduates of the program are qualified to assume positions as curators and staff members in map collections of universities, governmental agencies, and industry. In cases where map collections are not of sufficient size to warrant separation as distinct collections, knowledge of how to store, classify, and retrieve maps will be a valuable set of skills that enhance the qualifications of the information professional.
- MLIS Program Advisor
- Dr. Alexandra Dimitroff
- Office: Bolton Hall 528
- Phone: 229-6839
- Geography Program Advisor
- Dr. Rina Ghose
- Office: Bolton Hall 450
- Phone: 229-4797
For more information on this program, see the Library and Information Science section of this Bulletin.
Doctor of Philosophy in Geography
An applicant must meet Graduate School requirements to be considered for admission to the program. Students from a wide range of disciplinary backgrounds may be admitted. They must present the following credentials:
- Master's degree.
- Statement of interest in the program.
- Substantial evidence of scholarly potential and commitment.
- Three letters of recommendation, submitted to the Geography Department.
- Recent (within five years) GRE scores.
In some instances where the applicant's record demonstrates exceptional promise, the Department will consider applications for admission to the Ph.D. program directly from a B.A./B.S. degree. Such admission does not constitute a waiver of any of the requirements indicated below.
The Graduate Program Committee, during the admission process, will evaluate an applicant's academic background and will assign deficiencies based on a comparison of his/her background and the proposed specific area of study as outlined in the student's statement of interest. In general, the department seeks students with:
- Potential for planning and successfully completing an independent scientific research project, as evidenced by a master's thesis and/or other appropriate materials;
- Basic statistical analysis skills;
- Interest and/or ability in evaluating problems related to the urban environment with a spatial framework; and
- Interest in examining research questions within a multi-disciplinary (human/physical) team environment.
A student who receives the master's degree from UWM must formally reapply for admission to the Graduate School before continuing studies toward the Ph.D.
Major Advisor and Committee
The student must have a major professor to advise and supervise the student's studies as specified in Graduate School regulations; the student may not register for any courses without that advisor's prior approval. The Chair of the Graduate Student Administrative Committee is a temporary advisor; within the first semester the student selects an advisor within the area of specialization. Each student, preferably after completion of the first year of study, also will select four additional members of the faculty/qualified professions to form his/her advisory committee. A majority of the committee members must be core geography faculty members. Affiliated faculty members from other departments may serve as major advisors.
Graduate Student Orientation
All new students are expected to participate in the department orientation program, offered during the week prior to the start of fall classes. If a student enters the program in the spring, s/he must participate in this program during the subsequent fall semester. New students will be paired with an experienced student mentor during their first year. Instructional opportunities sponsored by the Center for Instruction and Professional Development (CIPD) and the Preparing Future Faculty (PFF) initiative will be offered to all teaching assistants and other interested students enrolled in the doctoral program.
Course of Study
Minimum degree requirement is 54 graduate credits beyond the bachelor's degree, at least 27 of which must be earned in residence at UWM with a minimum GPA of 3.0.
Under the guidance of the advisory committee, the chair of which serves as the student's major professor, the student plans a program of study leading to the development of a special interest. All programs of study contain the following four elements: core concepts and methods, thematic focus, elective courses (as needed to meet the total credit requirement), and dissertation.
Core Concepts And Methods (four courses)
- All students must take the following foundation courses:
- Geog 525 Geographic Information Systems
- Geog 870 Contemporary Geographic Approaches
- Any Geography graduate seminar
- One of the following three courses:
- Geog 403 Remote Sensing: Environmental and Land Use Analysis
- Geog 547 Spatial Analysis
- Geog 727 Qualitative Research
Thematic Focus (at least three courses)
Students, in consultation with their advisor, must select a minimum of three courses that together confer specialized expert knowledge in one thematic area. The courses selected do not have to come from a single list, and they may include other courses not listed.
- Local Places: Problems and Issues (relevant courses include):
- Geog 441 Geography of Cities and Metropolitan Areas
- Geog 455 Applied Climatology
- Geog 464 Environmental Problems
- Geog 564 Urban Environmental Change and Social Justice
- Geog 734 GIS and Society
- Geog 945 The Internal Structure of the City
- Geo Sci 465 Advanced Environmental Geology
- Urb Std 981 Perspectives Toward Change in Urban Social Institutions
- UrbPlan 720 Urban Development Theory and Planning
- Global and Regional Perspectives (relevant courses include):
- Geog 430 Geography of Transportation
- Geog 440 City Systems and Metropolitan Development
- Geog 443 Cities of the World: Comparative Urban Geography
- Geog 540 Globalization and the City
- Geog 742 Urban and Regional Dimensions of Globalization
- Geog 744 Cities, Regions, and Globalization
- Geo Sci 470 Engineering Geology
- Urb Std 701 Comparative Urban Development
- UrbPlan 780 Seminar in Environmental Planning Issues
- Monitoring and Modeling Urban Dynamics (relevant courses include):
- Geog 403 Remote Sensing:Environmental and Land Use Analyses (if not taken in core)
- Geog 411 Physical Climatology
- Geog 420 Methods and Principles in Land Form Geography
- Geog 520 Physical Geography of the City
- Geog 547 Spatial Analysis (if not taken in core)
- Geog 625 Intermediate Geographic Information Science
- Geog 650 Geography Field Work
- Geog 703 Advanced Remote Sensing
- Geog 725 Advanced Geographic Information Science: Geographic Modeling
- Geog 727 Qualitative Research (if not taken in core)
- Geog 750 Remote Sensing and Urban Analysis
- Geo Sci 730 Modeling Techniques for Hydrogeology
- Urb Std 725 Methods of Urban Community Development
- UrbPlan 721 Applied Planning Methods
Research Techniques (elective course)
Students who have not taken a research techniques course in their prior graduate program should consult with their faculty advisor regarding their enrollment in Geog 910, Techniques of Research and Presentation, an introduction to theoretical and practical aspects of geographic research, funding, presentation, and publication. Ideally, students should enroll in this course after their first full year of courses, but no later than their fourth semester, after they have completed the majority of CORE requirements. The course is designed to assist students with the initiation of their Ph.D. dissertation research.
Foreign Language Requirement
If appropriate to the proposed area of study, the student's committee will require that s/he acquire the necessary competence in a foreign language. The major professor will supervise the completion of this requirement with input from the committee as necessary.
Courses taken from geography or cognate fields to achieve the total of 54 credits required for the Ph.D. degree. Students must have the approval of their advisors for the elective courses.
The candidate must write an acceptable dissertation that demonstrates formulation, design, and independent execution of a significant research project. The dissertation must make an original contribution to knowledge in the field of geography. It may focus on geographical theory, methodology, data, or analysis, or it may involve collaborative approaches, interdisciplinary syntheses, and integrative solutions appropriate to the focus of the student's graduate program of study.
By the end of the first full academic year in the program, each student will undergo a formal portfolio evaluation by the members of the faculty in order to determine the student's readiness to continue in the program. This evaluation will include inspection of all written work produced in courses, commentary by relevant instructors, and any other materials the student chooses to submit. The possible outcomes of this review will be:
- PASS (student continues with the normal second year of their program);
- FAIL (student is recommended for academic dismissal); or
- PROBATION (student is counseled to take specific courses or other actions to achieve the necessary readiness to continue in the program). In the case of a recommendation of Probation, the student will be re-evaluated after an additional semester. If this second review does not result in a decision to PASS, the student will be recommended for academic dismissal.
The student must meet minimum Graduate School residence requirements of one continuous academic year of full-time graduate studies at UWM. This can be satisfied by completing 8 to 12 graduate credits in each of two consecutive semesters, or 6 or more graduate credits in each of three consecutive semesters, exclusive of summer sessions. Residence credit cannot be earned at the master's level or before the master's degree is awarded.
Doctoral Preliminary Examination
Each student will undergo a comprehensive written and oral examination by the end of his/her sixth semester in the program. The student's committee, advisor, and proposed dissertation topic must be approved formally by the Geography departmental faculty prior to the scheduling of these exams. A Proposed Ph.D. Program/Plan of Study must be filed with the major professor prior to the preliminary examination. Successful completion of these exams leads to candidacy, when work on the dissertation can commence.
The student's advisor, as chair of the advisory committee, will organize and administer the examination. The content of the examination will be determined by the area of the student's interest. The scope of the examination will be determined by the student's advisory committee. A student judged qualified by the majority of the five-member advisory committee will be admitted to candidacy. A student judged not qualified by the majority of the advisory committee will not be admitted to candidacy at the time of the examination but will be given an opportunity to retake the examination once, after a waiting period of at least one semester. At the discretion of the advisory committee, the second examination will be either a complete reexamination or a partial examination over the parts in which the student failed to qualify. A student receiving a negative vote of the advisory committee after the second examination will be recommended for academic dismissal. The student will be informed of the reasons for failure to qualify.
Each student must make two presentations at department colloquia. The first presentation will be scheduled early in the student's program; it is designed to give the student experience in making formal presentations. The second presentation will communicate the student's dissertation research topic and preliminary results.
As mentioned above, the candidate must write an acceptable dissertation. The defense date for the dissertation must be set at least two weeks prior to the Graduate School deadline. The dissertation must be approved by the major professor and delivered to the student's advisory committee at least six weeks prior to the defense date. A student must submit the dissertation to the advisor in sufficient time to meet the committee's deadline. Exceptions to these deadlines under unusual circumstances must be approved unanimously by the student's committee.
The candidate must, as the final step toward the degree, defend the dissertation before the advisory committee. If the candidate passes the defense, the advisory committee will recommend to the Graduate School that a degree of Doctor of Philosophy be conferred.
Submission of Completed Dissertation
In addition to submission of the final dissertation to the Graduate School (according to its required procedure), the candidate must present to the Geography Department a professionally hard-bound copy that meets Graduate School specifications for quality. This copy will remain on file in the department.
All degree requirements must be completed within ten years from the date of initial enrollment in the doctoral program.
For additional information see the Graduate School Ph.D. requirements.
Special Issues for Directly Admitted Students
Students directly admitted to the doctoral program after completion of their bachelor's degree will not earn a master's degree during the course of their studies. Further, formal doctoral status (which affects stipend rates and the ability to fulfill the residency requirement) will not be granted until the student has completed 24 credits in the program. Lastly, no more than 12 dissertation credits can be used to satisfy the 54-credit doctoral degree requirement.
Courses numbered 300-699 are Undergraduate/Graduate. Courses numbered 700 and above are Graduate only.
- 400 Geography of Population. 3 cr. U/G.
- Population processes and policies in different geographical contexts. Fertility, mortality, and migration; theories of population growth; urbanization and megacities; refugees; medical and health geographies. Prereq: jr st; Geog 110(P) or 115(P).
- 400 (effective 01/26/2015) Population, Environment, Development. 3 cr. U/G.
- Population processes and policies in different geographical contexts: fertility, mortality, migration, and policies affecting these; population-environment relations; interactions of population and economic development. Prereq: jr st; Geog 105(P), 110(P), 114(P), or 140(P).
- 403 Remote Sensing: Environmental and Land Use Analysis. 4 cr. U/G.
- Use of aerial photographs and digital imagery in environmental and land use analysis, including urban areas. 3 hrs lec; 2 hrs lab PC/Windows familiarity recom. Prereq: jr st & Geog 215(P); or grad st.
- 405 Cartography. 4 cr. U/G.
- Thematic cartography; map communication, design principles, illustration and mapping software. 3 hrs lec, 2 hrs lab. Prereq: jr st & Geog 215(P); or grad st.
- 410 Gendered Geographies. 3 cr. U/G.
- Various ways feminist geographers have analyzed gender in relation to phenomena such as the body, home, work, the nation, colonization, and globalization. Prereq: jr st & one of Geog 105(P) or 110(P) or Wmns 200(P) or 201(P) or equiv; or grad st.
- 411 Physical Climatology. 3 cr. U/G.
- Analyzing climatic processes at the microclimate scale. Budgets of radiation, energy, water, and momentum at the earth's surface, sensible-latent heat, and soil-plant-atmosphere interactions. Prereq: jr st, Geog 120(P) or Atm Sci 100(P) or 240(P), & Geog 310(R); or grad st.
- 415 Hydrogeography. 3 cr. U/G.
- Role of water in geographic systems. Interaction of water with physical and human systems, key hydrological processes, spatial and temporal variations of water, data collection, modeling. Prereq: jr st, Geog 120(P) or 125(P), & Geog 215(P); or grad st.
- 420 (effective 01/26/2015) Methods and Principles in Land Form Geography. 3 cr. U/G.
- Geographic qualitative and quantitative methods in land form analysis and principles of landscape evolution. Prereq: jr st & Geog 120(P) or 121(P) or Geo Sci 101(P).
- 421 Geography of Latin America. 3 cr. U/G.
- Topical and regional analysis of physical features, discovery and exploration, processes of settlement, evolution of the landscape, and problems of development through modern times. Prereq: jr st & Geog 110(P) or 120(P) or 125(P); or grad st.
- 424 Karst Geomorphology. 3 cr. U/G.
- Description and analysis of karst (limestone) processes and landforms. Prereq: jr st; Geog 004(P), 120(P) or cons instr.
- 430 (330) Geography of Transportation. 3 cr. U/G.
- Geographic analysis of transportation, with emphasis on commodity flows and traffic patterns. Prereq: jr st; Geog 115(P).
- 441 Geography of Cities and Metropolitan Areas. 3 cr. U/G.
- Extent, localization, and geographic relations of land uses, facilities, and internal circulation, with particular reference to large North American cities. Prereq: jr st & intro course in geog or acceptable course in an urban related field, e.g. Econ, UrbPlan, Urb Std; or grad st.
- 443 Cities of the World: Comparative Urban Geography. 3 cr. U/G.
- Geographic analysis of world urban systems with emphasis on the cultural traditions, form, function and socio-economic development of cities. Prereq: jr st & Geog 110(P), 115(P), or 140(P).
- 450 Climates of the Past and Climate Change. 3 cr. U/G.
- Climatic history of the earth and climate models. Milankovitch theory, quaternary climates, temporal-spatial scales of change, general circulation, and earth system models. Prereq: jr st, Geog 120(P) or Atm Sci 100(P) or 240(P), & Geog 310(R); or grad st.
- 455 Applied Climatology. 3 cr. U/G.
- Applications of climate processes and data. Solar energy, wind energy, food production, water usage, building design, urban environments, ecological assessment, and land form development. Prereq: jr st, Geog 120(P) or Atm Sci 100(P) or 240(P), & Geog 310(R); or grad st.
- 462 Cultural Geography of Latin America. 3 cr. U/G.
- Development of cultural landscapes, with emphasis on land use and environmental change resulting from European introductions; historical explanation of modern landscapes and environmental problems. Prereq: jr st; one of Geog 105(P), 110(P), 421(P), 422(P), Hist 180(P), 388(P), 389(P), or 390(P).
- 464 Environmental Problems. 3 cr. U/G.
- General discussion and case studies of geographical contexts and historical roots of modern environmental problems. History of human concern over adverse environmental impacts. Prereq: jr st & an intro course in a life science or environmental science.
- 470 Geography of South Asia. 3 cr. U/G.
- Survey of the historical, cultural and economic geography of South Asia, including India and adjacent countries. Prereq: jr st; intro Geog, Anthro, or Econ course.
- 475 Geography of Soils. 3 cr. U/G.
- Systematic and regional study of soils, interrelationships of soils with the physical and cultural landscape. 2 hrs lec, 2 hrs lab. Prereq: jr st; Geog 120(P), 121(P), or 125(P) or equiv.
- 497 Study Abroad: (Subtitled). 1-12 cr. U/G.
- Designed to enroll students in UWM sponsored program before course work levels, content, and credits are determined and/or in specially prepared program course work. Retakable w/chg in topic. Prereq: jr st; acceptance for Study Abroad Prog.
- 515 Watershed Analysis and Modeling. 3 cr. U/G.
- Theories and applications of analytical and modeling techniques for watershed processes, including geographic information systems (GIS), statistics, and computer simulations. Prereq: jr st; working knowledge of GIS; Geog 415(R) or Geo Sci 463(R) or 562(R); or grad st.
- 520 Physical Geography of the City. 3 cr. U/G.
- Spatial aspects and interactions of plants, animals, climate, soils, and water resources relevant to human activities in the urban environment. Prereq: jr st & Geog 120(P) or 125(P); or grad st.
- 525 Geographic Information Science. 4 cr. U/G.
- Geographic and information theoretical foundations of geographic information science (GIS). Use of macro languages in a software project to expand GIS functionality. 3 hrs lec, 2 hrs lab. Prereq: jr st, & Geog 215(P); or grad st.
- 540 Globalization and the City. 3 cr. U/G.
- Spatial aspects of globalization and their impact on the city. Topics include emergence of global cities, impacts on urban development, and global era urban strategies. Prereq: jr st.
- 547 Spatial Analysis. 4 cr. U/G.
- Advanced analysis techniques, including multivariate relationships and spatial modeling. Prereq: jr st; Geog 247(P) or dept-approved equiv.
- 564 Urban Environmental Change and Social Justice. 3 cr. U/G.
- Spatial aspects of contributors to urban environmental change affecting social justice. Inequitable distribution of environmental risks and benefits; challenge of developing policies. Prereq: jr st.
- 625 Intermediate Geographic Information Science. 4 cr. U/G.
- Concepts and techniques of geographic information science (GIS), with emphasis on GIS-based spatial analysis, associated applications, and technology. 3 hrs lec, 2 hrs lab. Prereq: jr st: Geog 525(P) or UrbPlan 591(P) or 791(P); or cons instr.
- 650 Geography Field Work. 3 cr. U/G.
- Geographic field techniques and field problems; classroom preparations and field projects. Students will pay fieldwork expenses. Retakable w/chg in topic to 9 cr max. Prereq: jr st; writ cons instr.
- 654 Tropical Field Course: (Subtitled). 3 cr. U/G.
- Study of geographic field problems and techniques in the tropics. Classroom preparations, field projects and field trip to the tropics. Students will pay field trip expenses. Retakable for cr w/chg of field topic & site to 9 cr max. Prereq: jr st; writ cons instr.
- 698 GIS/Cartography Internship. 1-6 cr. U/G.
- Practical GIS/cartography experience with government agency or private firm under supervision of working expert and faculty member. Intern's contract specifies duties and duration. Retakable to 6 cr max. Prereq: jr st; Geog 215(P); writ cons instr & dept chair.
- 703 Advanced Remote Sensing. 3 cr. G.
- Advanced techniques of image processing and analysis, including classification, georegistration, and spatial modeling. Prereq: grad st; Geog 403(P).
- 725 Advanced Geographic Information Science: Geographic Modeling. 3 cr. G.
- Advanced spatial modeling with both GIS and other tools of geo-computation, including examination of conceptual models aimed at an analysis of their possible implementation. Prereq: grad st; Geog 625(P).
- 727 Qualitative Research. 3 cr. G.
- Qualitative research as applied in geography, including the relationship between quantitative and qualitative approaches, issues of interpretation, and ethics of field work. Prereq: grad st.
- 734 GIS and Society. 3 cr. G.
- Interconnected relationship between Geographic Information Science (GIS) and society, including hidden impacts and implications of such a relationship. Prereq: grad st.
- 742 Urban and Regional Dimensions of Globalization. 3 cr. G.
- Geographic perspectives on urban and regional change as 'developed' and 'less developed' parts of the world become more interconnected by wider international processes of change. Prereq: grad st.
- 744 Cities, Regions, and Globalization. 3 cr. G.
- Globalization process and impact on cities and regions, including emergence of global cities and regions, impact on uneven development, and global era urban strategies. Prereq: grad st
- 750 Remote Sensing and Urban Analysis. 3 cr. G.
- Seminar in remote sensing technologies and applications in urban analyses, including land use/land cover analysis, socio-economic information estimation, heat-island effect, sprawl monitoring, and growth modeling. Prereq: grad st; Geog 403(P); Geog 525(P) or UrbPlan 591(P) or 791(P).
- 810 Introduction to Techniques of Research and Presentation. 3 cr. G.
- Proseminar on the scholarly use of materials in all aspects of geography; training for effective presentation in both written and oral form. Prereq: grad st.
- 870 Contemporary Geographic Approaches: (Subtitled). 3 cr. G.
- Foundations of geographic inquiry, with emphasis on the roles of sub-disciplines, and generalist/specialist approaches in the development of geographic science. Retakable w/chg in topic to 6 cr max. Prereq: grad st.
- 880 Challenges to Urban Sustainability. 3 cr. G.
- Urban environmental management theory and practice, history of the urban environmental crisis, and alternative strategies for understanding human activity/ecological process relationships in urban areas. Jointly-offered w/& counts as repeat of UrbPlan 880. Prereq: grad st.
- 885 Geography Practicum. 3 cr. G.
- Opportunity for graduate students to work together to solve a real world problem facing Milwaukee. Developing/sharpening organizational, analytical, communication, and decision-making skills required of geographers. Prereq: grad st.
- 888 Candidate for Degree. 0 cr. G.
- Available for graduate students who must meet minimum credit load requirements. Fee assessed for 1 cr. Prereq: grad st.
- 889 Internship in Geography. 1-6 cr. G.
- Application of advanced principles of geography in a business, organizational, educational, political, or other appropriate setting. Intern's contract specifies duties and duration. Retakable to 6 cr max. Prereq: grad st; Geog 810(P); writ cons instr & dept chair.
- 890 Research and Master Thesis. 1-6 cr. G.
- Research connected with master thesis. Retakable to 6 cr max. Prereq: grad st.
- 905 Seminar: Selected Topics in Geography: (Subtitled). 3 cr. G.
- Retakable w/topic chg to 9 cr max. Prereq: grad st.
- 910 Techniques of Research and Presentation. 3 cr. G.
- Seminar on theoretical and practical aspects of geographic research, funding, presentation, and publication. Prereq: grad st in Geog Ph.D. program.
- 932 Seminar: Economic Geography: (Subtitled). 3 cr. G.
- Analysis in depth of significant topics in advanced economic geography specializations: agricultural geography, geography of manufacturing, and geography of transportation. Retakable w/chg in topic to 9 cr max. Prereq: grad st.
- 934 Seminar: Urban Geography: (Subtitled). 3 cr. G.
- Retakable w/chg in topic to 9 cr max. Prereq: grad st.
- 940 Seminar: Physical Geography: (Subtitled). 3 cr. G.
- Retakable w/chg in topic to 9 cr max. Prereq: grad st.
- 941 Seminar: Climatology: (Subtitled). 3 cr. G.
- Retakable w/chg in topic to 9 cr max. Prereq: grad st.
- 942 Seminar: Geography of Land Form: (Subtitled). 3 cr. G.
- Retakable w/chg in topic to 9 cr max. Prereq: grad st.
- 945 The Internal Structure of the City. 3 cr. G.
- The interaction of forces responsible for the evolution of the city as a spatial form and the allocation of economic and social activity within the spatial configuration. Geog 945 & Urb Std 945 are jointly-offered; they count as repeats of one another. Prereq: grad st.
- 960 Seminar: Geographic Techniques: (Subtitled). 3 cr. G.
- Retakable w/chg in topic to 9 cr max. Prereq: grad st.
- 990 Research and Doctoral Dissertation. 1-12 cr. G.
- Research projects connected with dissertation. Retakable to 12 cr max. Prereq: grad st.
- 999 Independent Work. 1-6 cr. G.
- Independent reading or project. Retakable w/chg in topic to 12 cr max. Prereq: grad st.