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Where have all the wonder women gone? Article by Elana Levine (Journalism & Media Studies).
11/20/14  The Conversation

We're number 85! Kathleen Dolan, (Political Science) quoted in editorial on women in Congress.
11/20/14  Philadelphia Daily News

Nearly 40% of women with engineering degrees leave or never enter the field.
Nadya Fouad (Educational Psychology) led the study.
Live TV interview. 08/11/14  WSJ Live

Quoted in editorial. In Our View: STEM Must Welcome All. Fouad 08/15/14  The Columbian (Vancouver, Wash.)


"Anti" not a conservative value. Opinion piece co-written by William L. Holahan (Emeritus, Economics).
08/17/14  Rutland (Vermont) Herald

Nathaniel Stern (Art & Design): Rippling Images. Exhibit at Tory Folliard Gallery begins Oct. 17.
08/18/14  expressmilwaukee.com

National media covering Wisconsin governor's race interview Mordecai Lee (Political Science).
08/12/14  Washington Times
08/11/14  Reuters
08/10/14  Time

Music & Memory program brightens lives of Alzheimer's, dementia patients. UWM researchers launch first large-scale study of the program
08/11/14  JSOnline

UWM study: Uncivil work environment pushing women out of the engineering field. Research led by Nadya Fouad (Educational Psychology) featured.
08/11/14  The Peninsula (Qatar)
09/09/14  The Washington Post

Marijuana research led by Krista Lisdahl (Psychology) featured.
08/09/14  China Topix
08/09/14  University Herald

Ohio algae-driven water crisis unlikely in Lake Michigan, says Todd Miller (Public Health).
08/05/14  Chicago Tribune
08/05/14  postcrescent.com (Appleton)
But... The algae is often found in Wisconsin lakes.
08/10/14  JSOnline

Grant money could help 'transform' wheelchairs. UWM lab participating in research.
08/08/14  The News-Gazette (Ill.)

Charting the successes and missteps of placemaking in Milwaukee. Arijit Sen (Architecture) interviewed.
08/08/14  JSOnline

Wisconsin sees slow growth in consumer spending. N. Kundan Kishor (Economics) interviewed.
08/07/14  AP (via BND.com [Southwestern Illinois])

Growing Life Expectancy Gap Between Black and White Wisconsin Women. UWM School of Public Health Dean Magda Peck interviewed.
08/07/14  WUWM News

A Watershed Moment:
Great Lakes at a Crossroads
A special Milwaukee Journal Sentinel series on invasive species. Research of Freshwater Sciences scientists including Harvey Bootsma and Rudi Strickler is featured.
07/27 - 07/30/14  JSOnline

Monitoring mussels on the bottom of Lake Michigan. Slideshow featuring Harvey Bootsma.
07/26/14  JSOnline

Life expectancy gap between blacks and whites improves — but not in Wisconsin. David Pate (Social Work) quoted.
08/04/14  JSOnline

Primaries will solidify Wisconsin Democrats' state Senate hopes. Mordecai Lee (Political Science) quoted.
08/03/14  Minneapolis Star-Tribune

Standing up to the weed invasion. Jim Reinartz (Field Station) cited as author of “Roadside Invasive Plant Management Plan,” given to road crews and highway departments in the eight counties.
07/30/14  Ozaukee Press

Patients more likely to withhold information when their providers use an electronic health record system, according to a study led by Celeste Campos-Castillo (Sociology).
07/29/14  Politico

Wisconsin candidates dance around questionnaires on issues. Mordecai Lee (Political Science) quoted in opinion piece by WisconsinEye network producer Steven Walters.
07/28/14  GazetteXtra

For Rare Languages, Social Media Provide New Hope. Margaret Noodin (English, American Indian Studies) discusses importance of preserving Anishinaabemowin, a Native American language.
07/28/14  WKMS 91.3 FM (Murray, Ky.)

Formidable invasive species won't be easy to keep out of Great Lakes. UWM professor & zooplankton specialist Rudi Strickler (WATER Institute) featured.
07/26/14  JSOnline

Stop flushing pills down the toilet. UWM study revealed 14 contaminants linked to pharmaceuticals in Lake Michigan.
07/21/14  The Cap Times

Why women are far more likely to vote than men. Kathleen Dolan (Political Science) interviewed.
07/17/14  The Washington Post

School of Freshwater Sciences will do study on water system for Hunger Task Force fish hatchery.
07/23/14  JSOnline

John Berges (Biol. Sciences, Freshwater Sciences) was neck deep in Eurasian water-milfoil as he searched for a temperature and light sensor in the Estabrook Park Pond.
07/20/14  JSOnline (Image #6)

Adel Nasir (Electrical Engineering) works to build largest microgrid.
07/19/14  JSOnline

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Updated 7/14/14


September 2007

Visualizing Protein

Valerica Raicu's lab is capturing the promise of better drugs through imaging protein interactions in living cells.
Photo of Valerica Raicu
Caption | "Our main goal here is to visualize proteins inside the living cell," Raicu says. "And not only to visualize them, but to detect any possible interactions they may have with other proteins, of their own type or a different type."

By Peter Hansen

Proteins are sequences of amino acids whose three-dimensional shape determines their function in living cells. They are the main components of cellular material, serving as enzymes, hormones, structural elements, receptors, and antibodies. A common estimate is that there are over 100,000 unique types of proteins in the human body.

In the pharmaceutical industry, cell membrane proteins are particularly important. They control the flow of information and materials between cells and mediate activities such as nerve impulses and hormone action. Many diseases involve disruption of the essential processes of membrane proteins, and some 60 percent of drugs target them.

An important discovery by scientists in recent years is that multiple proteins usually work together to perform cellular tasks.

"Proteins rarely do something of biological significance alone," explains Valerica Raicu, an assistant professor of physics at UWM whose research focuses on membrane proteins. "They usually aggregate and form small nanomachines that have a biological role, accomplish a biological function."

Raicu is among the growing number of scientists interested in the physics of biological processes. "Our main goal here is to visualize proteins inside the living cell," he says, standing beside the laser-scanning microscope in his laboratory. "And not only to visualize them, but to detect any possible interactions they may have with other proteins, of their own type or a different type."

Photo of laser
Caption | To capture images of cells, which are often measured in micrometers, or microns — hundred-thousandths of a meter — Raicu's team built its own laser-scanning microscope.

As the Human Genome Project sequenced and mapped the entire collection of DNA in human beings, scientists learned the function of genes and their location on the chromosome. "The next step is to understand how the proteins, which are actually the product of genes, function," Raicu explains.

The proteins Raicu is studying are a family of transmembrane receptors known as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which mediate cellular responses to signaling molecules such as hormones and neurotransmitters, as well as local mediators including proteins, small peptides, amino acids, and fatty acid derivatives.

To capture images of cells, which are often measured in micrometers, or microns—hundred-thousandths of a meter—Raicu's team built its own laser-scanning microscope. "Because of the types of questions we ask, we need new technology," he says. "There is no technology available to answer our questions."

The team needed a microscope that could scan the cell rapidly and in very thin sections. With its tightly focused laser, the microscope can capture slices as thin as 300-400 nanometers, or billionths of meters. The cell Raicu uses as a model—yeast—is about 5-6 microns. "But most cells are larger than that, so really you can get very nice high-resolution images," Raicu says.

Thanks to the microscope's CCD camera—its image sensor features an integrated circuit with an array of linked light-sensitive capacitors—and an ultrashort pulse laser, whose pulses last just 10 femtoseconds (that equals one hundred trillionths of a second, or 0.00000000000001 second), the microscope can capture about 150 frames per second. "Most of this speed is spent on gaining color information of the visualized sample, but enough remains available for fast imaging of the cell," Raicu says.

picture from microscope
Top: yeast cells expressing the membrane receptor sterile-2 α protein (a G-protein coupled receptor) fused to a variant of the green fluorescent protein to form Ste2p-GFP2. Note the localization of Ste2p-GFP2 in internal and external membranes. The excitation wavelength was centered around 800 nm (± 60 nm) and the emission was centered around 500 nm (± 2 nm). Bottom: yeast cells expressing only GFP2 in the cytoplasm. Note the cytoplasmic localization of GFP2 in these thin (< 700 nm) sections of the cells. The excitation wavelength was centered around 800 nm (± 60 nm) and the emission was centered around 500 nm (± 2 nm).
picture from microscope

Even with high-resolution, high-speed movies, Raicu still has to know what he's looking at. To help with that, members of Raicu's team travel to the lab of Chaoyang Zeng, a UWM assistant professor of biological sciences, to genetically modify their GPCR proteins. With help from Zeng, as well as from David Jansma, a collaborator at the University of Toronto in Canada, they have synthesized the proteins with fluorescent tags—molecules that emit light when excited by the laser. They use the green fluorescent protein (which comes from the jellyfish Aequorea Victoria) and differently colored variants to tag the different proteins they're interested in. This way Raicu can track the positions and movements of the proteins under his laser-scanning microscope.

To detect interactions between proteins, Raicu takes advantage of a special exchange of energy—Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)—that occurs when two fluorescent molecules come within a nanometer of each other. During FRET, a laser-excited molecule, referred to as the donor, transfers its energy to a nearby molecule, called the acceptor, and only the acceptor emits light. So if the donor normally fluoresces green, but only yellow is emitted (by the acceptor), Raicu knows that FRET has occurred, and that the two membrane proteins have interacted.

"We can detect whether or not they are interacting, whether they're close to each other, if they exchange energy, and then see a shift in the color," he says "We do a lot of mathematics to quantify that, find out how many are interacting, how many are not interacting, and so on."

When fully developed, Raicu's technology should be an important tool in drug development.

"People working in the pharmaceutical industry will be interested to tailor their drugs to the properties of their proteins," he says. If those receptors are distributed uniformly on the membrane, that's an important question. If they are forming complexes, getting together, that's important. If they do, what's the size of those complexes?

"Then, knowing that, you know what kind of drug to design. Those guys would need this kind of toy for drug design."

Raicu estimates his technology could be integrated into a commercial microscope and available to medical and pharmaceutical professionals within five years.  

Page last updated on: 07/11/2014